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R&D: Perspective on Nanoscale Magnetic Sensors Using Giant Anomalous Hall Effect (AHE) in Topological Magnetic Materials for Read Head Application in Magnetic Recording

Describes simulation-based investigations of AHE magnetic sensors for applications to read head sensors (readers) of HDDs.

Applied Physics Letter has published an article written by Tomoya Nakatani, Prabhanjan D. Kulkarni, Hirofumi Suto, Keisuke Masuda, Hitoshi Iwasaki, and Yuya Sakuraba, Research Center for Magnetic and Spintronic Materials, National Institute for Materials Science, 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 305-0047, Japan.

Abstract: Recent advances in the study of materials with topological electronic band structures have revealed magnetic materials exhibiting giant anomalous Hall effects (AHEs). The giant AHE has not only attracted the research interest in its mechanism but also opened up the possibility of practical application in magnetic sensors. In this article, we describe simulation-based investigations of AHE magnetic sensors for applications to read head sensors (readers) of hard disk drives. With the shrinking of magnetic recording patterns, the reader technology, which currently uses multilayer-based tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR) devices, is associated with fundamental challenges, such as insufficient spatial resolution and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in sensors with dimensions below 20 nm. The structure of an AHE-based device composed of a single ferromagnetic material is advantageous for magnetic sensors with nanoscale dimensions. We found that AHE readers using topological ferromagnets with giant AHE, such as Co2MnGa, can achieve a higher SNR than current TMR readers. The higher SNR originates from the large output signal of the giant AHE as well as from the reduced thermal magnetic noise, which is the dominant noise in TMR readers. We highlight a major challenge in the development of AHE readers: the reduction in the output signal due to the shunting of the bias current and the leakage of the Hall voltage through the soft magnetic shields surrounding the AHE reader. We propose reader structures that overcome this challenge. Finally, we discuss the scope for future research to realize AHE readers.“